The country occupying the greater part of the island of Great Britain, and the largest of the countries that make up the United Kingdom.
The birthplace of the Industrial Revolution, its rail transport in England is the oldest in the world, with the system originating there in 1825. There is rail transport access to France and Belgium through an undersea rail link, the Channel Tunnel which was completed in 1994.
During the war, many cities were damaged by air-raids during The Blitz, but soon rebuilt with loans from Canada and United States. The capital, London, is the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom and the European Union. London is the largest financial centre in Europe, and is also the largest in the world.
Traditional English food include Fish and chips, Bangers and Mash, and Sunday Roast featuring a roasted joint of beef, lamb or chicken, served with assorted boiled vegetables, Yorkshire pudding and gravy. The full English breakfast, consisting of bacon, grilled tomatoes, fried bread, black pudding, baked beans, fried mushrooms, sausages and eggs. Meat pies such as steak and kidney pie, shepherd's pie, cottage pie, Cornish pasty and pork pie. Popular cheeses are Cheddar and Wensleydale. English-Indian hybrid dishes, curries, have been created such as chicken tikka masala and balti. Sweet dishes include apple pie, mince pies, scones, custard and sticky toffee pudding. Common drinks include tea, while alcoholic drinks include wines and English beers such as bitter, mild, stout, and brown ale.
William Shakespeare, whose works include Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet, Macbeth, and A Midsummer Night's Dream, remains one of the most championed authors in English literature. Many nursery rhymes are of English origin such as Twinkle Twinkle Little Star, Roses are red, Jack and Jill, Here We Go Round the Mulberry Bush and Humpty Dumpty.
Its contribution to the arts has been felt around the world, with strong film and television (BBC) industries, in popular music English bands and solo artists have been cited as the most influential and best-selling musicians of all time. The Beatles, Led Zeppelin, Pink Floyd, Elton John, Queen, Rod Stewart and The Rolling Stones are among the highest selling recording artists in the world.
English Heritage is a governmental body managing the historic sites, artefacts and environments of England. It is currently sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport. There are many museums in England, but the most notable is London's British Museum. Its collection of more than seven million objects. is one of the largest and most comprehensive in the world, sourced from every continent, illustrating and documenting the story of human culture from its beginning to the present.
The British Library in London is the national library and is one of the world's largest research libraries, holding over 150 million items in all known languages and formats; including around 25 million books. The National Gallery houses a collection of over 2,300 paintings dating from the mid-13th century to 1900. The Tate galleries house the national collections of British and international modern art.
English language today spoken by hundreds of millions of people around the world, thanks in large part to the British Empire.
The capital of both England and the United Kingdom, a global capital of finance, fashion and culture, it is the biggest city in Western Europe.Oxford
A city, and the county town of Oxfordshire, in South East England. The city, made prominent by its medieval university, the oldest in the english speaking world.Winchester
A historic cathedral city and former capital city of England and home of the world famous Arthur's Round Table. It is the county town of Hampshire, in South East England. Winchester is an attractive and peaceful cathedral city deep in the southern English countryside, located conveniently close to both London and Southampton.
Situated in Essex in southeast England and a sea-side getaway for most Londoners. Brighton is a perfect break by the sea.
The UK's second largest city by metropolitan area, third largest by population. It is also the third most visited city in the UK. I spent a weekend here, it has a modern feel to it but mostly its the people which will charm you. Thank you Diane for your invite and hospitably!Bournemouth
Bournemouth is a seaside resort town in the county of Dorset on the south coast of England. Founded in 1810 and first became recognized as a town in 1870. Its proximity to the Jurassic Coast and Poole Bay has turned Bournemouth into a prized summer holiday destination.
Settled by people of various cultures for about 35,000 years, it takes its name from the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes who settled during the early middle ages. The name "England" is derived from the Old English word Englaland, which means "land of the Angles". England is also refered as Albion, which derives from the Latin meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover, which is the first view of Britain from the European Continent.
Britain had trading links with the Romans. Julius Caesar attempted to invade twice in 55 BC. The Romans conquered Britain in AD 43 during the reign of Emperor Claudius, and the area was incorporated into the Roman Empire as Britannia province. This era saw a Greco-Roman culture with the introduction of law and order, Roman architecture, personal hygiene, sewage systems, education, and many agricultural items. It was the Romans who founded the first cities and towns such as London, Bath, York, Chester and St Albans. By 410, as their Empire declined, the Romans had left the island, to defend their frontiers in continental Europe.
Following the Roman retreat, Britain was left open to invasion by pagan, seafaring warriors such as Saxons and Jutes who gained control in areas around the south east, following Viking conquests in the north and east, England became a unified state in AD 927. King Cnut the Great briefly incorporated England into an empire which also included Denmark and Norway. Early Medieval architecture's buildings were simple constructions mainly using timber with thatch for roofing.
England was conquered in 1066 by an army led by William the Conquerer from the Duchy of Normandy. The Normans themselves originated from Scandinavia and had settled in Normandy a few centuries earlier. They introduced feudalism and maintained power through barons, who set up castles across England. Lords could uphold their authority and to protect from invasion. Some of the best known medieval castles include the Tower of London, Warwick Castle, Durham Castle and Windsor Castle. (see Barony of Caux)
The Black Death epidemic hit England, starting in 1348, it eventually killed up to half of England's inhabitants.
Under the formed Kingdom of Great Britain on 1 May 1707, it paved the way for the establishment of the British Empire, which became the largest in history. During the Napoleonic Wars, Napoleon Bonaparte planned to invade from the south-east. Napoleonic forces were defeated by the British at sea by Lord Nelson and on land by the Duke of Wellington. The Napoleonic Wars fostered a concept of Britishness and a united national British people, shared with the Scots and Welsh.
The national flag of England, known as St. George's Cross, has been the national flag since the 13th century and has formed part of the design of the Union Flag. The national coat of arms of England, featuring three lions dates back to its adoption by Richard the Lionheart. England does not have an official national anthem, as the United Kingdom as a whole has God Save the Queen. England's National Day is St George's Day, as Saint George is the patron saint of England, it is held annually on 23 April, but is not a public holiday.